We recently looked into what all the different versions and editions of Microsoft Windows 10 actually mean to you, the user, but we neglected to mention one of the editions; Windows 10 Pro Workstation. Maybe you can see the source of the confusion; the nomenclature isn't very far removed from vanilla Windows 10 Pro, nor does it give any indication of how it differs. Pro is already geared toward the business environment, and therefore workstations, so what does the distinction actually mean?
There's a difference, and it's actually a pretty important one: Windows 10 Pro Workstation offers support for more server-like hardware configurations. It's the beefiest version of desktop Windows you can go for. It offers support for CPU archetectures like the Intel Xeon and AMD Opteron, which would otherwise require Windows Server. It also increases the supported amount of RAM from 2TB to 6TB, and from two physical CPUs to four.
It's unlikely that any of these features will be important to you, since maxing out the supported hardware would be heart-stoppingly expensive and impractical for all but the most demanding of tasks. Likewise, there's support for some dizzyingly techy terms, like Resilient File System (ReFS) and NVDIMM-N memory, both of which are so specified, that it seems strange that anyone would ever even need it on a workstation.
However, there are situations where a powerful system is needed, but using a server OS on a client desktop doesn't make sense. In those events, Windows 10 Pro Workstation is the way to go. Really, I just like to see a desktop running 6TB of RAM. That would be pretty boss.